Hack-tivism is real deep penetration

by Maria Eleanor E. Valeros, #citizenmedia

So I missed the 8th Rootcon? And I’m about to throw fits. It was in a Rootcon thingie that I got surrounded by 99 hackers, and how it felt sooo good, it aches to be left out.

 

What I remember most is meeting lawyer Al Vitangcol III who inspired me to scribble this piece, which saw print first in Cebu’s longest-running community daily, The FREEMAN. Read on:

“The reality is that the government and even the private firms do not have an established and effective security mechanism to protect computer systems and communication networks, including the Automated Elections System, from determined hackers.”

If you find this at the concluding portion of a report on “…Automation and Electoral Fraud,” penned by lawyer Al Vitangcol III, would you trust the PCOS (Precinct Count Optical Scan) machines again?

Vitangcol, a treasure trove when it comes to computer/network security, graced the “Rootcon 5 Hackers Conference” here in Cebu City, Central Philippines as one of the event’s valuable resource speakers. However, he refused to give a categorical answer to the question if there was indeed tampering of election results during the 2010 polls given the premise that “no system is 100-percent hack-proof.”

Instead, the Information Technology specialist and the Philippines’ first (and only lawyer) Electronic Commerce Council-certified computer hacking forensic investigator referred me to a report he presented to the Senate during one of the house’s “investigation in aid of legislation” on the alleged vulnerability of the PCOS machines to vote shaving and vote padding.

Vitangcol’s report which also saw print in national newspaper The PHILIPPINE STAR (StarWeek Magazine) read: “The most common question asked by the voting public is whether or not the election results can be tampered with. The answer is possibly Yes.”

He cited the following major technical issues which the Commission on Elections and Smartmatic-TIM have yet to resolve:

  • Software and subsequent voting date of the PCOS machine. It was said that these will be placed in a separate memory card, distinct from the unit itself. Such opens up opportunities for damage, tampering, data alteration, and even memory card switching.
  • Crypto keys. The cryptographic keys, both private and public, to the machine, are both under the control of Smartmatic-TIM – contrary to internationally established cryptographic standards. Thus, Smartmatic-TIM and its associated parties can make changes to the precinct election results without detection.
  • Data transfer. Transmission to the Comelec-Smartmatic-TIM hubs will be done through public telecommunications network. Transmitted data to designated points nationwide may be lost, erased, or even altered, once the Philippines’ AES comes under attack from computer hackers and crackers.

“With the few identified vulnerabilities of the AES,” Vitangcol wrote, “the final question that begs to be answered is this — Is the AES susceptible to hacking?”

He underlined that the Comelec, through its spokesman, had already admitted that it can be hacked, in this wise, “I am not saying that the system cannot be hacked. No system is 100-percent hack-proof. I am just saying that we have made sure that the system will not be hacked.”

“Even the Supreme Court, in its decision in Roque et. al. vs. Comelec et. al. had failed to look into the big picture of the AES relative to computer hacking,” this was also learned.

“Said decision focused only on the PCOS machine – and not on the whole AES infrastructure.”

Pertinent portion of the said decision reads: “Additionally, with the AES, the possibility of system hacking is very slim. The PCOS machines are only online when they transmit the results, which would only take around one to two minutes. In order to hack the system during this tiny span of vulnerability, a super computer would be required. Noteworthy also is the fact that the memory card to be used during the elections is encrypted and read-only — meaning no illicit program can be executed or introduced into the memory card.”

Vitangcol pointed out that the Supreme Court was correct in saying that the PCOS machines are only online when they transmit the results, which would only take around one to two minutes. “There is no question about this. Nobody would even want to hack the PCOS machines,” he added.

“But how about the municipal, provincial and national hubs that will receive the transmission of election results? Are they online for only two minutes? No, they are not,” he stressed.

“In fact, these hubs will be online for a prolonged period of time – from the time that the first clustered precinct will transmit its results to the time that the last clustered precinct will transmit its results to the same hub – effectively exposed and vulnerable to hacking all throughout that time.”

He added that with all due respect to our revered justices, the Supreme Court, in the same decision, “possibly made a lapse when it stated that the ‘memory card to be used during the elections is encrypted and read-only.’ The memory card is not ‘read-only.’ In fact, the images of all the ballots cast, together with the final count of all the votes of all the candidates, will be stored in the same memory card during elections day. If the memory card is ‘ready-only,’ then the results cannot be written and stored in the same card. For sure, the memory card is ‘read-write’ capable.”

What is the significance of this? “This means that the contents of the memory card can be erased, altered, or even manipulated,” Vitangcol said.

The report comes with a reminder that hackers are motivated by challenges, especially when an event of transcendental proportion takes place, and when the organization responsible for that event raises a challenge. According to him, “it is the adventure that primes these hackers to develop a system that can paralyze, if not totally break down, another system.”

And for huge hacking incidents, the involvement of a Filipino explicitly tells how impressive our engagement with technology is. Only that we seem to lose sense when proper application of such is already required of us. Remember the ILOVEYOU computer worm aka Love Letter authored by Filipino computer programming students and released to the wild in 2000? Even the series of defacements of government websites profess the genius of Pinoy IT specialists.

Collectively called Philkers (Philippine Hackers), these smart alecks claim that their invasion is not meant to destroy protected files. In fact, they have a commanding, rallying, engaging description to justify their act of deep penetration: Hacktivism. This, to show to our leaders – smack on their faces – how much work is still to be done; how much knowledge to imbibe; and methods and strategies to relearn and unlearn, when faced with the current and emerging challenges of securing information.###

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DSWD 7 opens summer job slots

CEBU, PHILIPPINES — To earn life skills in the workplace, while earning money to help meet school needs, the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) Field Office 7 is encouraging the youths to join the Government Internship Program which will provide a P300 allowance per day for 22 days.

DSWD 7 has 50 slots for this year’s GIP. The internship will start this April 20 and will culminate on May 20, 2015. The selected participants will be assigned in the different units and sub-offices of the regional office.

Qualifications for GIP, should be within the age of 18 to 24 years old, should be college level or high school graduate. For out-of-school youth, they should not have stopped for more than two years.

The GIP is one of the components of the Kabataan 2000 program of the government, which provides opportunity for both out-of-school and in- school youths a hands-on experience of working in various government agencies.

It is implemented during summer time when the youths are on vacation, thus, using their available time in a productive manner. It introduces the youths to public service, serves as a recruitment mechanism for potential public employees, and extends possible financial assistance for their enrollment in the next school year.

Interested applicants should submit the following: photocopy of birth certificate, most recent school registration form or certification from the school indication the recent year/semester of applicants school attendance, photocopy of income tax return of parents/head of the family/guardian or barangay certificate confirming that the family is residing in the barangay, with information on the total monthly family income (from all sources), filled-out application form to be secured in the records section.

Applicants may look for Raul Minoza or Jessie Flores for the application form. For further inquiries please contact Eppie Partosa in this number 232-1192 local 105.

Last day for the submission of the application together with the requirements mentioned above will be on April 2, 2015.

According to DSWD 7 Regional Director Mercedita Jabagat, the GIP is basically recommended to empower and equip the youth for their future careers.

“The program will serve as a venue for the aspiring youths to prepare them in the real battlefield of the labor force,” said Jabagat.

She added that GIP is not merely a program that provides financial aid or working experience in government offices, but a way of appreciating and honing their skills, potentials, talents and contribution in nation building.

“Involving the youth in more meaningful endeavors like GIP paves the way for them to develop and acquire self-confidence and professionalism,” Jabagat disclosed. (Released by Pantawid Pamilya Information Office)

Diamond Suites blogger, backpacker friendly

by Maria Eleanor E. Valeros, #newmedia specialist

caption: Front office **grabbed from diamondsuitescebu.com.ph

CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES — Diamond Suites Cebu, a businessperson’s hotel on Apitong corner Escario Streets here, embraces the significant contributions of bloggers and backpackers in moving the economy via information sharing and grassroots travel, respectively.

Recently, Diamond Suites Cebu hosted the first meetup and pool party of the Cebu Blogging Community. The bloggers group, geared at strengthening support for members, finds an ally in the hotel as the latter renews commitment to provide a venue conducive to discussion, debate, and relaxation. The hotel is also open to the current work culture of bloggers that party-mosphere is reward to “hours of brain-firing.”

Executive and marketing officer Keene Albert Tan introduced Diamond Suites’ management team who welcomed CBC headed by executive director/chief blogger Ruben Licera, Jr. with community leads Margarita “Mary” Narvasa, Chanel Marie Imperial, and Gay Aida Dumaguing.

CBC has just facilitated a renewal of its members, now reaching around 50, as well as talks on CBC rules and guidelines, syndication of blogs, netizen media writing and social responsibility.

Tan, an aspiring blogger himself, shared that it is important for them to partner with bloggers which he finds as significant as traditional media. In a chat during the pool party, Tan along with sales account manager Pearlyn Hortelano pointed out that bloggers are already an essential in making stories go viral. “Blogging is an essential tool in today’s means of positioning a brand, selling services, marketing strategies so we stand by our commitment to make the blogging community part of the Diamond Suites family,” this the duo underscored.

Backpackers have a special place too at Diamond Suites Cebu via rooms designed for “wash-up purposes” whenever the need arises. “We have guests who find it a necessity to see the countryside, so they don’t really stay that long in the city. Thus, we came up with a wash-up room for P1,500 good for six hours, the right package to meet their ‘fly-in, fly-out’ approach to travel,” Hortelano informed.

Diamond Suites Cebu has 102 fully functional guest rooms. It used to be 129 but the 27 condominium units already have permanent residents. Rooms vary from Superior, to Deluxe and Suite Rooms. At the disposal of the business traveler are complimentary internet, gooseneck reading lights and a work space, alongside an LCD television that guests can enjoy while relaxing on a plush bed with memory pillows.

Visit diamondsuitescebu.com.ph for pocket-friendly rates, exclusive use of pool on sixth floor (top floor), and other concerns.###

Bloggers group tackles credo, activism

caption: Cebu Blogging Community executive director and chief blogger Ruben Licera, Jr. leads discussion on Manifesto on Public Accountability for blogger-members of CBC and netizen media.

CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES — Cebu Blogging Community, which began September of last year as an informal group of blogging enthusiasts, initiated recently its first “Ultimate Meetup and Pool Party” at the Diamond Suites Cebu to gather its members, present a revised set of guidelines in both membership and in web logging, as well as social media responsibility.

Around 40 of the 50-member blogging group also agreed on a manifesto of public accountability for posts click-published on both its official community page and on bloggers’ respective social networking sites. This after the group underwent a renewal of membership and acceptance of close to 10 newbies.

According to CBC executive director/chief blogger Ruben Licera, Jr. the meetup is geared at accomplishing general objectives such as providing support to fellow bloggers and collaboration in covering various events. “It’s important that bloggers get to know each other during events, inspire each other as there could be varied aspects to write about in just a single event,” Lecera said.

The other is a specific objective to encourage transition from plain blogging to embracing netizen media reporting. This writer, former print media practitioner and now a CBC member, echoed a call for bloggers to ‘’go beyond personal logging.’ This after she attended the recent 10th Global Voices Citizen Media Summit at the Provincial Capitol graced by 300 international bloggers cum social media activists.

This writer shared that bloggers are called to go beyond the “it’s a personal thing” paradigm and take on serious blogging by tackling social issues in their posts (microblogging for example) to promote discussion, social good, empathy; and that these should espouse humanitarian interest.

“Social media activism may have started from a blogging experience while exploring the potential of internetworking but writers and blogging communities have to move from there to give meaning to open online expression,” this writer, in her presentation, quoted Manila blogger Tonyo Cruz who was one of the summit’s panelists.

“Yes, it might be a personal thing, expressing one’s personal views about issues but we have to agree on interview policies, perhaps; we can draft a unified statement to make certain disclosures more responsible and accountable. Digital natives, immigrants and creatives who have become bloggers look for guidelines from senior statesmen,” Tonyo Cruz accentuated.

CBC members agreed mutually to start small by adopting a Manifesto of Public Accountability using basic four points : to be honest with their blogs, to be fair always, to be accountable for items click-published, and to minimize harm. These are simple terms for a broad sense of journalistic principle.

“I think we don’t really have to go stringent or rigid since too few bloggers are journalists but we are adopting the Journalists Creed to guide us that a public journal is a public trust therefore we have to take full responsibility of our article,” Lecera reiterated.

As for CBC administrator Mary Tinio Narvasa, she cited that CBC gears at transpiring as the “wow group” when it comes to support for bloggers here in Cebu. “Blogging should be fun. This meetup looks at strengthening the group, devising mechanisms on meeting deadlines specifically for posts that require host-specific results such as movie reviews,” she said.

Further, Licera added that it is a specific objective to make CBC a cooperative so freelancers can avail of insurance policies at minimal cost.

The event was made possible through blogger-friendly entities like Diamond Suites Cebu, Flawless Face and Body Clinic, Cebu Teambuilding Services, Cebu Domain, and the Philippine Information Agency.###

PLDT, Samsung, Microsoft empower SMEs with broadband, digital solutions

PLDT, Samsung, Microsoft empower SMEs with broadband, digital solutions

CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES — The Philippines’ fast-growing digital, social and mobile users definitely create unprecedented opportunities for the 800,000 strong small and medium enterprise (SME) market segment.

However, the challenge today is how SMEs can efficiently tap and engage this community.

Today, there are over 34 million Facebook users, over 10 million Twitter followers and with over 44 million Filipino internet users and counting.

With this, PLDT SME Nation partners with Samsung and Microsoft Philippines to create innovative business solutions that will enable entrepreneurs to run their business better, grow faster, be more globally competitive and engaged with the country’s digital, social and mobile population.

SMEs can now enjoy the benefits of having PLDT SME Nation’s premium and faster fixed and wireless broadband solutions running on our latest fiber and LTE network. These broadband offerings provide unlimited access which give entrepreneurs the ability to continuously conduct online activities without the fear of bandwidth throttling. Our services also feature committed information rates or CIR, which guarantee minimum bandwidth speeds for businesses and a static IP used to power up their websites and enable faster inter-office data transfers.

Second, PLDT SME Nation boasts of its most robust network and nation-widest reach for its fixed, wireless and now satellite service, ensuring that entrepreneurs will have the best broadband service suited for their business wherever they are.

Lastly, these new broadband packages come with supercharged flexible freebies ranging from relevant and business enabling Cloud Solutions such as Microsoft Office 365 and PLDT Cloud apps for video monitoring, asset tracking, POS, infrastructure and more. SMEs will also be able to get for free and choose the latest array of smart devices from Samsung Philippines and High Definition (HD) TV content from Cignal.

In an event entitled “Growing your business in the digital age,” PLDT SME Nation together with two other industry leaders, Samsung and Microsoft, announced this partnership to create and introduce groundbreaking technologies and tools that will enable SMEs to efficiently manage their businesses anytime, anywhere.

In his welcome remarks, PLDT executive vice president and ePLDT president and chief executive officer Eric Alberto highlighted the significance of the partnership saying, “this collaboration and synergy among today’s leaders in the telecommunications industry ushers in a new era of enablement for the small and medium enterprise market segment.

Through this strategic partnership, SMEs will have access to game-changing business tools such as faster and nationwide fixed and wireless broadband solutions, latest gadgets and devices and relevant collaboration cloud applications which should ultimately lead to higher levels of operational efficiencies, expanded market reach, higher profit margin levels, and in the process create higher economic multiplier for our country,” Alberto adds.

PLDT SME Nation showcased some of this technology’s capability during the event, inviting several bloggers from Cebu and Manila to virtually take part of the press conference from remote locations using Microsoft Office 365. (PLDT Corporate Communications)

Background, rationale of ‘Kaplag 450’

by Maria Eleanor E. Valeros, #newmedia specialist

CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES — Four centuries and a half after the finding of a scorched image of the Holy Child in a pine chest, Cebu continues to be the icon’s home – revered to the point that devotees deem it “essential to widen the extent of the celebration through a national declaration of 2015 as the Year of the Santo Nino,” echoing a “450Kaplag” statement of the Order of Saint Augustine.

April marks the 450th anniversary of the finding of the image of the Santo Nino (1565) and of the presence of the Augustinians in the Philippines. It is also the 50th year of the Santo Nino Church as a basilica minore (1965).

Fr. Arnel Antonio S. Dizon, in an official statement released to netizen media, shared that the “450th anniversary of the discovery of the Santo Nino image, with the formal evangelization and Christianization of the Philippines, marks a historic milestone in Philippine Christianity.”

Fr. Dizon said that the Basilica and the devotion to the Santo Nino are “undoubtedly two significant contributions and legacy to the Philippine Catholic Church that flourished from the pioneering efforts of the earliest Augustinians to their successors.”

Moreover, he said, the foundation of towns and provinces, parishes and churches, schools and other institutions is a living testament of their civic, cultural, educational and religious commitment.

The planned activities like the Kaplag International Conference on the history of the devotion, presence of Augustinians in the Philippines, and the Basilica; unveiling of commemorative stamp, launching of a commemorative book; a painting exhibit by Rev. Fr. Dominador Besares, fluvial procession and grand reenactment of the arrival and finding of the image and development of its devotion here, among others, are meant to pay homage to the memories of the past, celebrate the continuous engagement, and embolden the forthcoming endeavors of the Augustinians in the Philippines and beyond.

Fr. Dizon further mentioned that the 450th commemorative celebration aims to animate the commitment to “re-evangelize” through the authentic witnessing of the shared faith.

This objective is anchored on a pastoral letter of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines on the Era of New Evangelization calling on the faithful to “live Christ, share Christ.”

“A vibrant Church like the Philippines aspires to be more active in the universal mission by reaching out and re-evangelizing the world, especially Asia,” Dizon’s statement added.

“On the national scene,” it was further learned, “that the lineup of events highlights the historical, cultural, societal and religious significance – all rolled into our common heritage as a proud nation indebted to its beginnings. It is likewise an opportunity to inform the young generation for them to appreciate our colorful historical past and to deepen and concretize our sense of identity.”

Activities run from April 18 to 28, 2015 with www.450kaplag.com for official website.###

That fire within

by Maria Eleanor E. Valeros, #newmedia specialist

photo from the wires

CEBU, PHILIPPINES— Imagine a fire engine with a capacity of 1,050 gallons able to dispense 500 gallons per minute through a discharge outlet measuring 2.5 inches. That would easily give us the idea that within two minutes, tank would be out of content.

Now, imagine a fire tank lorry supplying 12,000 gallons with outlet measuring 1.5 inches supporting, ironically, the fire engine mentioned above. Calculate disparity. Apply that to real firefighting scenario. Common sense would tell us why the fire bureau’s capacity to control a burning house made of light materials fails to meet the “five-minute rule of thumb.”

Configuration of fire trucks is just one of the concerns raised by Provincial Fire Marshal Victor Vibares, as he shared how the media could have helped raise awareness on this matter instead of berating them and accusing them of incompetence and “zero visibility”.

Maka-upset. Nakamenos ning ubang taga-media namo. Nganong moingon man sila nga mas maayo pa adto na lang mo-tap sa mga volunteer fire brigades kay naa pa dayon sa scene, nya kami na lang mag-volunteer. Kahibalo ba sila sa among mga challenges within?” an emotional Vibares shared this in an interview in line with the observance of March as Fire Prevention Month.

Vibares, though, made it clear he has no problem with the Provincial Government, but because in operational and administrative functions, his office shares with Cebu City and the region, it’s best to look at one of the concerns that reduce efficiency of their response and firefighting operations.

Sa configuration of donated truck pa lang daan, you do the math, it would give you the idea nga we cannot implement full operation in just two minutes even with a 50-percent pump capacity, kay suportahan man ta’g lorry nga lesser ang discharging capacity.”

What does this entail? Vibares said that normally, with 50-percent pump capability, they are able to immediately douse the blaze, put the conflagration in full control, and pull out from the area.

“We are accused nga walay tubig ang tangke. Natural 50-percent gani ang discharge capacity sa fire engine. So we leave to fetch for water. Some volunteer fire brigades take over, so kinsa may makita when we’ve already left the scene?

“It is the mandate of the law that volunteers are to receive instruction from the ground commander – the most senior government firefighter in the scene. Ayaw ko pag-ingna wala sila kaila, that’s impossible. That gesture alone sends the wrong message.

“Connect that to the specifications of our truck, supposedly to support us. How can we perform better when we are not getting the right device? In the event of inadequacy of fire hydrants, the other fire brigades are supposed to help us in the relay,” Vibares disclosed this with a chuckle.

There is also the perennial problem on the mob during fire incident responses.

When suggested that the low regard for government firefighters could have stemmed from the fact that fire hoses could easily be grabbed by some people who believe they know better than firemen, Vibares pointed out: “That’s the work of the police, to cordon the area. Kay dili man nato malikayan nga naay nasunogang desperado na, sigurista pa, mangilog na’g hose. Gusto niya unahon ang iyang balay og salbar. Totally unfamiliar of our assessment procedure.”

He took this opportunity to appeal for the help of the netizen media to disseminate information and educate the public that firefighting is a communal effort. “Instead of sige’g ataki namo, why don’t you help explain that in responding to fires we have this consideration for covering exposures.”

He meant that the procedure would involve cooling down an area near the fire to prevent the event of radiation. “Mangutana mo ngano nga bas-on namo ang dapit nga wala masunog? It’s because fire behaves differently depending on the cause. We always consider the possibility of saving a structure, if it is already consumed, then we work on preventing further destruction.”

As for retired fireman Bernardo “Boy” del Mar who used to head the training division of the said bureau, it was learned that March has been chosen as Fire Prevention Month because it is during this particular time of the year that temperatures change. It can go from very cold to very humid days, triggering spontaneous combustion, bush fires, and sparks especially in illegally tapped electric power lines.

“It does not mean that because it’s prevention month, no fire must happen; it actually means having to be very extra careful because this is the month where fire behaves in such a destructive manner,” del Mar stressed.###

Sheena to inspire more aestheticians

by Maria Eleanor E. Valeros, #newmedia specialist

CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES – Despite a lack in professional licensure for aestheticians in the country, Sheena Em of Sheena Beaute Skin and Body Wellness Clinic, opening on March 9 at the Visayas Community Hospital, believes that more and more clients will be seeking their services for the wellness component, and because when one needs to improve a selfie, measures really don’t have to be skin deep.

“We are touching on the epidermis of the skin, so we work differently from dermatologists although we still observe strictly the sanitary measures and hygiene in our implements and services. We don’t perform invasive procedures. Ours is more on improving areas of concern like fine lines, pigmentation, slimming,” Sheena who is herself the endorser of her own brand and products disclosed weeks prior to the grand opening.

The clinic at the second floor  of the newly renovated Visayas Community Hospital along Osmena Boulevard, this city, is very Asian in its theme, employing bas reliefs that espouse femininity. However, services are not gender-specific. “We are expecting though that more women will avail of our services because generally women are more concerned about their looks.”

Sheena is keen on inspiring others interested in aesthetics. “It would be very nice for government agency concerned to include aesthetics in the list of vocational courses because this is a very lucrative career. It is easier to study and you promote wellbeing. It’s about people getting happy about their looks. That gives them good reason to be happy about their outlook in life,” she mused as she facilitated a tour of Cebu media people to her facility, and a consultation on skin type, offering skin care tips.###

March is ‘heat-transfer info’ month

CEBU, PHILIPPINES — FO1 Wendell Villanueva, Bureau of Fire Protection 7 public information officer, mentioned that fire starts in many ways. “Some are slow, some fast. These happen in different stages.”

The incipient stage has no visible smoke or flame yet. The smoldering stage shows smoke but without flame. The flame stage, as the name suggests, has both smoke and flame. While the heat stage has this uncontrolled spread of superheated fire. “Fire spread in four ways,” he added as he enumerated heat transfer by radiation, heat transfer by conduction, by convection and direct heat transfer.

Heat transfer by radiation involves the stages of emission, absorption and transmission of heat or energy. It involves the thermal process whereby atmospheric circulation is maintained through the upward or downward transfer of air masses of different temperature. Heat by conduction is the transmission of heat from one body to another. It is the transfer of heat from one molecule to another molecule. Heat transfer by convection is the diffusion of heat in liquid or gas form through the motion of its parts, while direct heat transfer is the transfer of heat from one body to another through direct flame contact.

“That’s what we would want to avoid. Heat transfer by radiation, so automatic ang cooling down of exposures.” Another very good point raised is the misnomer in the reporting of fire incidents. “Mao sad nay lisod if wrong or inappropriate ang termino gamiton sa reporting, imbis makatabang og pasabot, makamugna hinoon og confusion,” he expressed.

An often misused and misunderstood phrase in reports is faulting electrical wiring. “If there is actually faulty wiring, there would have been no electric power from the very start when you switch on the circuit breaker or the main service protective equipment,” he explained.

So what actually happens? According to Villanueva, “the wires or circuit becomes overloaded because of the increase in the load the circuit carries without changing the size of the wires. The subsequent effect will be weakening of the insulation of the wires due to overheating in the circuit caused by the additional load.”#